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Download Free PDF of ICSE Class 10 Chemistry Chapter 3 - Acids, Bases and Salts with Revision Notes


Acid Bases And Salts Class 10 Icse Pdf Download




If you are a student of ICSE Class 10 and looking for a reliable source to learn about acids, bases and salts, then you have come to the right place. In this article, we will provide you with a comprehensive overview of these important topics in chemistry, along with some useful resources that you can download for free. We will also answer some frequently asked questions that you might have about acids, bases and salts. So, let's get started!




Acid Bases And Salts Class 10 Icse Pdf Download



Introduction




Acids, bases and salts are three types of compounds that have different chemical properties and reactions. They are also essential for many natural and industrial processes, such as digestion, metabolism, fertilization, cleaning, etc. Therefore, it is important to understand their nature and behaviour in order to appreciate their role in our lives.


What are acids, bases and salts?




An acid is a compound that produces hydronium ions (H3O) when dissolved in water. A base is a compound that produces hydroxide ions (OH) when dissolved in water. A salt is a compound that is formed by the neutralization of an acid and a base.


How are they classified?




Acids, bases and salts can be classified based on various criteria, such as their sources, strength, basicity, concentration and molecular composition. Here are some examples of how they can be classified:


  • Organic acids are derived from plants or animals, while inorganic acids are derived from minerals.



  • Strong acids completely ionize in water, while weak acids partially ionize in water.



  • Monobasic acids produce one hydronium ion per molecule, while tribasic acids produce three hydronium ions per molecule.



  • Concentrated acids contain little or no water, while dilute acids contain more water than acid.



  • Hydracids contain hydrogen and a non-metallic element, while oxyacids contain hydrogen, oxygen and a non-metallic element.



How are they prepared?




Acids, bases and salts can be prepared by various methods, such as synthesis, action of water on non-metallic or acidic oxides, action of metals on acids or bases, action of carbonates or bicarbonates on acids or bases, etc. Here are some examples of how they can be prepared:


  • H2 + Cl2 2HCl (synthesis)



  • SO3 + H2O H2SO4 (action of water on acidic oxide)



  • Zn + 2HCl ZnCl2 + H2 (action of metal on acid)



  • CuO + 2HNO3 Cu(NO3)2 + H2O (action of base on acid)



  • CuCO3 + 2HCl CuCl2 + CO2+ H2O (action of carbonate on acid)



  • Cu(HCO3)2+ 2HCl CuCl2+ 2CO2+ 2H2O (action of bicarbonate on acid)



Acids




Properties of acids




The following are some common properties of acids:


  • They have a sour taste.



  • They turn blue litmus paper red.



  • They react with metals to produce hydrogen gas.



  • They react with carbonates and bicarbonates to produce carbon dioxide gas.



  • They react with bases to produce salts and water.



  • Their aqueous solutions conduct electricity.



  • Their pH values are less than 7.



Uses of acids




The following are some common uses of acids:


  • Vinegar (acetic acid) is used as a preservative and a flavouring agent.



  • Citric acid is used as an antioxidant and a cleaning agent.



  • Sulphuric acid is used in the manufacture of fertilizers, explosives and batteries.



  • Nitric acid is used in the manufacture of explosives, dyes and plastics.



  • Hydrochloric acid is used in the production of steel, chlorine and PVC.



  • Lactic acid is used in the fermentation of milk products.



  • Amino acids are the building blocks of proteins.



Examples of acids




The following are some examples of acids:



NameMolecular formulaType/Source/Strength/Basicity/Concentration/Molecular composition


Vinegar (acetic acid)CH>Organic/Plant/Weak/Monobasic/Dilute/Oxyacid


Lemon juice (citric acid)C>Organic/Plant/Weak/Tribasic/Dilute/Oxyacid


Battery acid (sulphuric acid)H>Inorganic/Mineral/Strong/Dibasic/Concentrated/Oxyacid


Aqua regia (nitric acid)HNO>Inorganic/Mineral/Strong/Monobasic/Dilute/Oxyacid


Gastric juice (hydrochloric acid)HCl Inorganic/Mineral/Strong/Monobasic/Dilute/Hydracid


Sour milk (lactic acid)C>Organic/Animal/Weak/Monobasic/Dilute/Oxyacid


Glycine (amino acid)C>Organic/Animal/Weak/Monobasic/Dilute/Oxyacid



Bases




Properties of bases




The following are some common properties of bases:



  • They have a bitter taste.



  • They turn red litmus paper blue.



  • They react with fats and oils to produce soap.



  • They react with acids to produce salts and water.



  • Their aqueous solutions conduct electricity.



  • Their pH values are more than 7.




Uses of bases




The following are some common uses of bases:



  • Sodium hydroxide is used in the manufacture of soap, paper and aluminium.



  • Potassium hydroxide is used in the production of fertilizers, batteries and biodiesel.



  • Magnesium hydroxide is used as an antacid and a laxative.



  • Amonia is used as a cleaning agent and a refrigerant.



  • Sodium bicarbonate is used as a baking soda and a fire extinguisher.



  • Sodium carbonate is used as a washing soda and a water softener.



Lime Examples of bases




The following are some examples of bases:



NameMolecular formulaType/Source/Strength/Basicity/Concentration/Molecular composition


Lye (sodium hydroxide)NaOH Inorganic/Mineral/Strong/Monobasic/Concentrated/Hydroxide


Potash (potassium hydroxide)KOH Inorganic/Mineral/Strong/Monobasic/Concentrated/Hydroxide


Milk of magnesia (magnesium hydroxide)Mg(OH)2 Inorganic/Mineral/Weak/Dibasic/Dilute/Hydroxide


Ammonia (ammonium hydroxide)NH3 (NH4OH) Organic/Animal/Weak/Monobasic/Dilute/Hydroxide


Baking soda (sodium bicarbonate)NaHCO3 Inorganic/Mineral/Weak/Monobasic/Dilute/Bicarbonate


Washing soda (sodium carbonate)Na2CO3 Inorganic/Mineral/Weak/Dibasic/Dilute/Carbonate


Lime water (calcium hydroxide)< Salts




Properties of salts




The following are some common properties of salts:



  • They have a crystalline structure.



  • They have a high melting and boiling point.



  • They are usually soluble in water, but insoluble in organic solvents.



  • They conduct electricity when dissolved in water or molten.



  • They are neutral, but can react with acids or bases to form different salts.



  • Their pH values depend on the acid and base that formed them.




Uses of salts




The following are some common uses of salts:



  • Sodium chloride is used as a food additive, a food preservative, a de-icing agent, and a raw material for chlorine and sodium hydroxide production.



  • Potassium chloride is used as a fertilizer, a salt substitute, and a raw material for potassium hydroxide production.



  • Magnesium sulphate is used as a laxative, an anticonvulsant, and a bath salt.



  • Sodium hydrogen carbonate is used as a baking powder, an antacid, and a fire extinguisher.



  • Sodium carbonate is used as a washing soda, a water softener, and a raw material for glass and soap production.



  • Calcium carbonate is used as a limestone, a marble, a chalk, an antacid, and a raw material for cement and lime production.




Examples of salts




The following are some examples of salts:



NameMolecular formulaType/Source/Strength/Basicity/Concentration/Molecular composition


Table salt (sodium chloride)NaCl Inorganic/Mineral/Neutral/Monobasic/Solid/Halide


Potash (potassium chloride)KCl Inorganic/Mineral/Neutral/Monobasic/Solid/Halide


Epsom salt (magnesium sulphate)MgSO4 Inorganic/Mineral/Neutral/Monobasic/Solid/Sulphate


Baking soda (sodium hydrogen carbonate)NaHCO3 Inorganic/Mineral/Basic/Monobasic/Solid/Bicarbonate


Washing soda (sodium carbonate)Na2CO3 Inorganic/Mineral/Basic/Dibasic/Solid/Carbonate


Limestone (calcium carbonate)CaCO3 Inorganic/Mineral/Neutral/Dibasic/Solid/Carbonate



Conclusion




In this article, we have learned about the definition, classification, preparation, properties, uses and examples of acids, bases and salts. We have also seen how these compounds are important for various natural and industrial processes. We hope that this article has helped you to understand these topics better and prepare for your ICSE Class 10 Chemistry exam.


FAQs




Here are some frequently asked questions about acids, bases and salts:



  • What is the difference between a normal salt and an acid salt?



A normal salt is a salt that is formed by the complete neutralization of an acid and a base. An acid salt is a salt that is formed by the partial neutralization of an acid and a base. For example, sodium chloride (NaCl) is a normal salt, while sodium hydrogen sulphate (NaHSO4) is an acid salt.


  • What is the difference between a monobasic acid and a dibasic acid?



A monobasic acid is an acid that can produce one hydrogen ion (H) per molecule when dissolved in water. A dibasic acid is an acid that can produce two hydrogen ions (H) per molecule when dissolved in water. For example, hydrochloric acid (HCl) is a monobasic acid, while sulphuric acid (H2SO4) is a dibasic acid.


  • What is the difference between a soluble salt and an insoluble salt?



A soluble salt is a salt that can dissolve in water to form a clear solution. An insoluble salt is a salt that cannot dissolve in water and remains as a solid precipitate. For example, sodium chloride (NaCl) is a soluble salt, while lead (II) iodide (PbI2) is an insoluble salt.


  • What is the difference between an alkali and ammonia?



An alkali is a basic hydroxide that produces hydroxide ions (OH) when dissolved in water. Ammonia is a compound of nitrogen and hydrogen that produces ammonium ions (NH4) and hydroxide ions (OH) when dissolved in water. For example, sodium hydroxide (NaOH) is an alkali, while ammonia (NH3) is not.


  • What is the difference between lime water and milk of lime?



Lime water is a clear and colorless solution of calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2) in water. Milk of lime is a milky and turbid suspension of excess calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2) in water. For example, lime water can be used to test for carbon dioxide gas, while milk of lime can be used to make plaster of Paris.



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